GUSTAV KLIMT * FERNAND KHNOPFF * EGON SCHIELE * MAX LIEBERMANN * DER BRUCKE SCHOOL [ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER # ERICH HECKEL # OTTO MUELLER * EMIL NOLDE] * MAX BECKMANN * MAX ERNST * GEORGE GROSZ * OTTO DIX * LYONEL FEININGER * PAULA MODERSOHN-BECKER * STADEL MUSEUM * LOTTE LASERSTEIN * CHRISTIAN SCHAD * DER BLAUE REITER SCHOOL [FRANZ MARC # AUGUST MACKE # WASSILY KANDINSKY # GABRIELE MUNTER # OSKAR KOKOSCHKA] * ALPHONSE MUCHA * “OUTSIDER ARTISTS” * KEES VAN DONGEN * JAN MANKES * PAUL KLEE * ALBERTO GIACOMETTI * POZSEF RIBBEL-RONAI * ROBERT BERENY * FERDINAND HODLER * AKSELI GALLEN KALLELA
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Austrian Expressionist painter, 1862-1918:
Fernand Khnopff, Belgian painter influenced somewhat by Klimt and by Pre-Raphaelite painters:
Another Austrian Expressionist painter:
Max Liebermann. When the renowned Berlin painter Carl Steffeck saw drawings by the 15-year-old Liebermann, he recommended that the boy’s talent should be encouraged as much as possible – much against his parents wishes. Steffeck gave Liebermann his first drawing lessons and encouraged him to attend the Weimar Akademie. Liebermann studied in Weimar for three years until 1872. A trip to Düsseldorf in 1871 took the young artist to Mihály Munkácsy, a Hungarian painter who lived here. Liebermann was inspired by Munkácsy’s Realism. Still under this impression, Liebermann painted his first large painting, “Die Gänserupferinnen” (Girls plucking Geese). The unadulterated realism of this work, which was much rejected among the critics, was to become typical of Liebermann’s art. He spent the years 1873 to 1878 in Paris and the artist colony of Barbizon. Here he studied the art of Millet, whose paintings of farm workers had a strong influence on him. A first sojourn in Holland in 1871 was followed by regular trips there, where he discovered suitable motifs for his most important works. His striving to elevate the life and work of the common man to the realms of art in an unpretentious simplicity was not generally accepted. Liebermann continually fought for acceptance. Only after turning towards motifs and scenes of bourgeois life did he become the celebrated and sought after painter of the liberal bourgeoisie of the turn of the century. He spent the years 1878 to 1884 in Munich and then returned to his native town Berlin in 1884. Max Liebermann was an important personality not only as an artist but also as an art politician. At the beginning of 1892 he was a member of the “Erste Sezession Deutschland”, an organisation which he chaired in Berlin from 1898 to 1911. Liebermann retreated from the political world in the last years of his life. In 1934 he became severely ill and died alone three months later in his Berlin apartment.
DER BRUCKE SCHOOL
German Expressionist painter:
Emil Nolde (born Emil Hansen; 7 August 1867 – 13 April 1956) was a German-Danish painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, and was one of the first oil painting and watercolor painters of the early 20th century to explore color. He is known for his brushwork and expressive choice of colors. Golden yellows and deep reds appear frequently in his work, giving a luminous quality to otherwise somber tones. His watercolors include vivid, brooding storm-scapes and brilliant florals.
Nolde’s intense preoccupation with the subject of flowers reflected his interest in the art of Vincent van Gogh. He became a member of the revolutionary expressionist group Die Brücke (The Bridge), of Dresden, in 1906, upon the group’s invitation. This association lasted only until the end of the following year. From 1908 to 1910 he was a member of the Berlin Secession, before being excluded in 1910 due to a disagreement with the leadership. In 1912 he exhibited with Kandinsky’s Munich-based group Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider); he had achieved some fame by this time and was able to support himself through his art. From 1902 he called himself after his birthplace.
Otto Dix was a German painter and printmaker. He was well known for his ruthless and harshly realisitc depictions of German society during the Weimar Republic and the overall brutality of war. Together with Max Beckmann and George Grosz, he is considered to be one of the most important artists of the movement of the so called “Neue Sachlichkeit” (“New Objectivity”). His experiences of World War I influenced him greatly as a painter and his first great subjects were crippled soldiers. Later on he also painted nudes and often savagely satirical portraits of celebrities from Germany’s intellectual circles. In the early 1930s, he became a target of the Nazis and his work became darker and more allegorical. Slowly but gradually he moved away from social themes and turned to draw Christian subjects and landscapes.
American-born artist of German descent was influenced by Cubism & Expressionism:
Paula Modersohn-Becker, whose career was cut tragically short by her death at 31, was one of the boldest German artists of her epoch. She ranged far beyond the regional nature portrayals of her Worpswede colleagues and anticipated the international artistic developments of the 20th century. Her absolute devotion to her art completely contradicted the norms of feminine behavior of her time; but this “egoistic” determination and self-assertion were the keys to her character and her incredible artistic achievements. She recognized at an early age that “false altruism distracts from one’s great goal.” Her great goal was her creative work: “…I will become something yet. How great or how small I can’t myself say, but it will be something complete in itself. This unswerving racing toward the goal, that’s the most beautiful thing in life.” Paula Becker was the third daughter out of seven children in a family that provided emotional security and confidence. When she was only 16 she received instruction in drawing in Bremen and London. After getting training to teach she was allowed to continue her artistic career in Berlin. Relatives also supported her first stays in Worpswede and, in 1900, in Paris. In Worpswede she studied with Fritz Mackensen and became friends with the sculptor Clara Westhoff. The painter Otto Modersohn, 11 years her senior, recognized and encouraged Paulas talent. They married in April 1901, and he financed her further visits to Paris (1902, 1905 and 1906-07), where she gained important new stimuli for her artistic development in the works of van Gogh, Cézanne and Matisse. Her last Paris stay, however, also represented an attempt to free herself from what had become a suffocating marriage, and brought with it an extremely productive phase of creativity in which she pushed forward into a new territory of powerful, simple self-portraits and mother-child paintings: “I am becoming something – I am living the intensely happiest time of my life.” But in the end she gave in to the pressures of her husband, for she did not see how she could earn a living herself. “The main thing is: quiet for my work, and that I have most at the side of Otto Modersohn.” (Letter to Clara.) In the spring of 1907 she returned to Worpswede with her husband. In November, after the birth of a daughter, Paula Modersohn-Becker died of an embolism.–LearnFromMasters
Though the following video appears to be in Japanese or Chinese, in fact it uses no speaking or writing:
ARTISTS Of DIE BLAUE REITER:
Though Kandinsky is probably best known for his later abstract paintings, he began in the Der Blaue Reiter group with more figurative works:
Austrian Expressionist associated with Der Blaue Reiter group:
BBC documentary on Outsider Artists:
Dutch painter associated with the modernist painters known as the Fauves:
Another Dutch painter:
Paul Klee [18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940] was a Swiss German artist:
Jozsef Rippl-Ronai (Kaposvar , 1861 . May 23 – Kaposvar , 1927 . November 25) Hungarian painter and graphic artist. Born in Swabia, a region in Hungary. From 1884 he attended Academy of Arts in Munich. In 1887 with his French wife, Baudrion Lazarina ( 1864 – 1947 ), he left their children at home, went to Paris and studied under Munkácsy Mihály and later became his assistant. During his stay in France he became acquainted with new style trends. He was a founding member of the Hungarian Impressionists and Naturalists Circle (OURS ) group, and participated in movements of the West as well. When the First World War broke out in 1914, he was still in Paris as possible enemy nationals were rounded up and interned. In 1915 in he returned to his hometown Kaposvár. In 1908 he purchased a Rome villa. In addition to painting, the design and production of stained glass windows also was undertaken by him. In 1912, he created the large Ernst Museum window. His second wife was Baudrion Lazarine. He spent considerable time in the house and the villa ‘s studio park, which operate as a museum today. He was the best Hungarian representative of Post-Impressionist and Secessionist aspirations in Hungary. His art revealed rich color, stylized lines and the typical decorativeness of those movements. In 1900 at the beginning of delicate pastel -painted pictures technique. His style was often likened to Fauvism and Pointillism when gaudy, bright colors appeared. Late era included dramatic painted self-portraits.
Nicolae Tonitza was a Romanian painter, engraver, journalist, lithographer and art critic. He represented Post-Impressionism and Expressionism movements. The painter created an extensive gallery of portraits, featuring young children from infants to young kids. He also sketched for many contemporary, usually political and leftist magazines, such as Socialismul, Adevarul, Flacara, Hiena and Ramp.
LearnFromMasters: One of the most important Swiss painters of the late 19th and early 20th century: